November 24, 2011
Samuel Hynes, Anne Matthews, Nancy Caldwell Sorel, & Roger J. Spiller, Reporting World War II: Part Two: American Journalism 1944-1946 (New York: Library of America, 1995) (From: The Editors of Fortune, "Issei, Nisei, Kibei": "The longer the Army permits California and the rest of the Pacific Coast to be closed to everyone of Japanese descent the more time is given to the Hearst papers and their allies to convince Californians that they will indeed yield to lawlessness if the unwanted minority is permitted to return. By continuing to keep American citizens in 'protective custody,' the U.S. is holding to a policy as ominous as it is new. The American custom in the past has been to lock up the citizen who commits violence, not the victim of his threats and blows. The doctrine of 'protective custody' could prove altogether too convenient a weapon in many situations. In California, a state with a long history of race hatred and vigilanteism, antagonism is already building against the Negroes who have come in for war jobs. What is to prevent their removal to jails, to 'protect them' from riots? Or Negroes in Detroit, Jews in Boston, Mexicans in Texas? The possibilities of 'protective custody' are endless, as the Nazis have amply proved." Id. at 47, 69-70.).